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Simulated Movement

Movement in a discrete space

"Virtual Ants": Cf. 16.2 in Chapter 16 ("Autonomous Agents and Self-Organization") of Gary W. Flake: The Computational Beauty of Nature. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998).

Essay about the artistic application of this idea
: Leonel Maura: "Swarm Paintings"

Discrete "virtual motion" may also emerge in Cellular Automata.

Physical motion in continuous space.

Jochem van der Spek: Demo's: Living Concepts.

Abstract Films & Automatic Pieces

Amoebae and other pieces by Mark Dearman.
Brian MacKern: Set Variable = Random(Art).

Interactive pieces

Bacteria and other pieces by Mark Dearman.
Multimania: Ballons.

Ongoing projects

Online motion study projects using Flash (including automatic as well as interactive pieces):

Especially: 2001: sep 10-24; oct 8/19/25; nov 26-30; dec 01-06, 26-28;
2002: jan 05-08, 22; feb 13/14/23; mar 09-30; apr 01-10, 25/26; jun 06/14/18/26; jul 01-09, 15-25; aug 02-06, 12/13, 20-30; sep 06; oct 11-31; dec 03-29;
2003: jan 16/18.

Manny Tan: Uncontrol.

Links & References

Michotte: La Perception de la Causalité.

Norman McLaren on animation (movie)

Soda Constructor

Virtual Mechanical Objects


Animal locomotion

Levitated (Jared Tarbell & Lola Brine): Organic Machines, 2002. (Random Insects.)

Karl Sims VPRO Video.

Frédéric Durieu: PuppetTool, 2002. (Zoo.)


"Boids" (Flocks, herds and schools)

Boids: Explanation of the basic idea and many links (Craig Reynolds)

Demonstrations: Look at the online applets with Gary Flake's book The Computational Beauty of Nature (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1998). [Choose "Boids" in the menu on the Java-Applets page.]

Cf. also: Demo-program by Wouter Hager. (Student work from a previous installment of the IAAA course "Algorithmic Art and Artificial Intelligence".)

Virtual Reality Flocking Demos

Boids in Virtual Reality

Bit-101 Laboratory: 2002 mar 31.

Further links



Compiled by Remko Scha, 2003.   Some web-links suggested by Jorn Baas, Lotte Meijer, Emiel VerLoren van Themaat and Timo Vorstenbosch.